This is a 100% volunteer effort brought to you by a handful of progressive Democrats and Independents who share a vision of an informed electorate. Thank you to the Demcast and Pennsylvania Indivisible organizations who host our report and help us share it with Commonwealth residents!
The Indivisible movement is focused on four key principles – equality, justice, compassion and inclusion. Accordingly, we score legislation that reflects those values:
- Ballot access, voting rights, campaign finance and ethics
- Civil rights, equality under the law and addressing systemic inequities
- Reinforcing and strengthening democratic norms, processes, and oversight
- Addressing economic inequality
This week we scored the debt limit vote in the Senate.
|Lawmaker||Score||Change from last score|
|🔵 Senator Bob Casey||100.0%||No change|
|🔴 Senator Pat Toomey||25.0%||-4.4%|
|🔴 PA-01’s Rep. Brian Fitzpatrick||43.1%||No change|
|🔵 PA-02’s Rep. Brendan Boyle||100.0%||No change|
|🔵 PA-03’s Rep. Dwight Evans||100.0%||No change|
|🔵 PA-04’s Rep. Madeleine Dean||100.0%||No change|
|🔵 PA-05’s Rep. Mary Gay Scanlon||100.0%||No change|
|🔵 PA-06’s Rep. Chrissy Houlahan||100.0%||No change|
|🔵 PA-07’s Rep. Susan Wild||100.0%||No change|
|🔵 PA-08’s Rep. Matt Cartwright||100.0%||No change|
|🔴 PA-09’s Rep. Dan Meuser||3.2%||No change|
|🔴 PA-10’s Rep. Scott Perry||0.0%||No change|
|🔴 PA-11’s Rep. Lloyd Smucker||7.7%||No change|
|🔴 PA-12’s Rep. Fred Keller||3.1%||No change|
|🔴 PA-13’s Rep. John Joyce||3.1%||No change|
|🔴 PA-14’s Rep. Guy Reschenthaler||3.1%||No change|
|🔴 PA-15’s Rep. Glenn W. Thompson||7.9%||No change|
|🔴 PA-16’s Rep. Mike Kelly||3.1%||No change|
|🔵 PA-17’s Rep. Conor Lamb||100.0%||No change|
|🔵 PA-18’s Rep. Mike Doyle||100.0%||No change|
Votes of Interest
Debt Limit Temporarily Raised
Vote date: Thursday, October 7, 2021 Vote Tally: 61-38
Party Breakdown: Eleven Republicans joined with the Democrats and Independents to break the filibuster on the debt limit legislation. The other 38 Republicans voted to continue the filibuster.
Bob Casey voted YES.
Pat Toomey voted NO.
Vote date: Thursday, October 7, 2021 Vote Tally: 61-38
Party Breakdown: This was a party line vote, with all Republicans present voting NO and all Democrats and Independents voting YES. Two Republicans did not vote – RIchard Burr of North Carolina and Marsha Blackburn of Tennessee.
Bob Casey voted YES.
Pat Toomey voted NO.
The GovTrack team provided an analysis of the debt limit drama in the Senate. Since it cannot be improved upon, we’ve quoted it here in its entirety:
On September 29, 2021, this bill became a House proposal to temporarily suspend the public debt limit through December 16, 2022. The Senate amended the bill on October 7, 2021 to be an increase in the public debt limit in an amount, $480 billion, that was projected by the Treasury Department to be the amount of debt needed through early December 2021 to not reach the public debt limit.
The Treasury Department had forecast that the federal government would hit the debt limit, i.e. run out of money to pay back existing debts, government salaries, and other pre-existing obligations, on October 18, 2021, creating the potential for a severe economic crisis. Failure to pay back existing debts risked a global loss of confidence in the U.S. economy and hampering the U.S.’s ability to borrow in the future, potentially leading to a recession. As of just prior to the end of the Trump Administration, the federal government ran a yearly deficit of $3.8 trillion, and spending levels have been similar in 2021 because spending in the first nine months of a president’s term is largely determined by legislation the previous year.
The House and Senate votes were largely along party lines. Although Republicans likely oppose an economic catastrophe, votes on raising the public debt limit are typically used by Republicans as leverage on other issues, by grinding the congressional agenda to a halt while the potential for economic crisis looms. Republicans said they opposed raising the public debt limit so long as Democrats were preparing a very large social spending package in the “budget reconciliation” process. But these issues are economically unrelated. The increase in the public debt limit proposed in this bill was required to avoid an economic crisis due to deficit spending enacted and supported by Republicans in prior years, regardless of any future legislation.
- “Senate votes to raise US debt limit until December,” from the Financial Times
- “Senate passes short-term increase to the debt limit, House to vote on it in coming days,” from CNBC
- “The Debt Limit: History and Recent Increases,” from the Congressional Research Service
Editor’s Note: There is very little information about judicial nominees/confirmed judges that cannot be found in the recaps provided by the most excellent source, The Vetting Room. MoCTrack will be relying solely on their content for most judicial confirmation recaps from now on.
Senate Confirmation Vote on Lauren J. King to be United States District Judge for the Western District of Washington
Key quotes from The Vetting Room profile of Lauren Washington:
- “Native Americans are among the most under-represented groups on the federal judiciary, with only two judges serving in active status. President Biden has now nominated a third, Seattle attorney Lauren King… King, a citizen of the Muscogee Nation, has focused her career on Native American law, frequently representing Native American tribes in lawsuits seeking to protect their interests. Most notably, King represented the Quileute tribe in a suit seeking to protect the fishing boundaries designated for the tribe under the 1855 Treaty of Olympia.”
- “Born in 1982, King received a B.A. from the University of Washington in 2004 and a J.D. from the University of Virginia Law School in 2008.”
- “Given the focus on her experience on Indian law, King is an unusual choice for a federal judicial appointment, and her selection shows a willingness by the Biden Administration to pick unconventional nominees.”
Vote date: Tuesday, October 5, 2021 Vote Tally: 55-44
Party Breakdown: All 44 NO votes were from Republicans. The Democrats and Independents present all voted YES along with 6 Republicans – Lisa Murkowski of Alaska, Chuck Grassley of Iowa, Mitch McConnell of Kentucky, Susan Collins of Maine, Lindsey Graham of South Carolina and Mike Rounds of South Dakota.
Bob Casey voted YES.
Pat Toomey voted NO.
Senate Confirmation Vote on Sarah A.L. Merriam to be United States District Judge for the District of Connecticut
Key quotes from The Vetting Room profile of Sarah Merriam:
- “Sarah A.L. Merriam earned her B.A. from Georgetown University in 1993 and her J.D. from Yale Law School in 2000.”
- “From 2007 to 2014, Merriam worked in the Office of the Federal Defender, representing indigent defendants in Connecticut federal court.”
- “Merriam has served as a U.S. Magistrate Judge since her appointment in 2015, where she handles detention, discovery disputes, misdemeanors, and social security/benefits cases.”
Vote date: Wednesday October 6, 2021 Vote Tally: 54-46
Party Breakdown: All of the Democrats and Independents were joined by 4 Republicans – Lisa Murkowski of Alaska, Susan Collins of Maine, Thom Tillis of North Carolina and Lindsey Graham of South Carolina. All 46 NO votes were from the remaining Republicans.
Bob Casey voted YES.
Pat Toomey voted NO.
Editor’s note: now that we are almost a year into the Biden Administration, almost all of the major bureaucratic positions have been filled. Many of the positions filled are getting down well past the deputy level, MoCTrack is going to provide slightly less information about these confirmations. These lower level bureaucrats are not often covered in traditional media, so we are left with only press releases and less reliable sources for information. Where possible, we will use the Whie House or departmental releases for biographical information about these new administration team members.
“Jonathan Meyer is currently a partner at Sheppard, Mullin, Richter & Hampton LLP in Washington, DC. Before entering private practice, he served as Deputy General Counsel and Senior Counselor at the United States Department of Homeland Security, where he advised the Secretary, Deputy Secretary, General Counsel, Chief of Staff, and other senior leaders of the 240,000-employee agency. Prior to DHS, he served as Deputy Assistant Attorney General at the Department of Justice, Special Deputy General Counsel of Amtrak, and Counsel to Senator Joe Biden on the Senate Judiciary Committee, among other positions. Originally from Cincinnati, Ohio, Meyer holds degrees from Harvard College, Columbia University School of Law, and Princeton University’s School of Public and International Affairs. Meyer is a recipient of the Secretary of Homeland Security’s Outstanding Service Medal, the U.S. Secret Service Director’s Honor Award, a Department of Justice Award for Outstanding and Dedicated Service, and numerous other awards and honors.”
Vote date: Monday, October 4, 2021 Vote Tally: 51-47
Party Breakdown: All of the Democrats and Independents were joined by an unusual trio of Republicans – Rand Paul of Kentucky, Rob Portmn of Ohio and Shelley Moore Capito of West Virginia. The other 47 Republicans voted NO.
Bob Casey voted YES.
Pat Toomey voted NO.
Senate Confirmation Vote on Paloma Adams-Allen, of the District of Columbia, to be a Deputy Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development
From the White House press release issued upon the nomination of Paloma Adams-Allen:
“Paloma Adams-Allen joined the Inter-American Foundation (IAF), a US agency supporting community-led development in Latin America and the Caribbean, in April 2017 as president and chief executive officer. Prior to joining the IAF, Adams-Allen was Sr. Director for global private sector partnerships initiatives at the international NGO, Winrock International. Before that, she served as deputy assistant administrator for the United States Agency for International Development’s (USAID) Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) Bureau. From 2010 to 2014, Adams-Allen served as Senior Adviser, during which she led the LAC Bureau’s public-private partnerships for development practice. She also spent a decade at the Organization of American States (OAS) in several hemispheric development policy, programming, and leadership roles. Early in her career she did short stints at the international law firm Coudert Brothers, and the advocacy organization Caribbean-Central American Action. Adams-Allen, who was born in Jamaica, spent her childhood between rural Jamaica and rural New England in the U.S. She holds a bachelor’s degree in development studies and African American studies from Brown University, a master’s in international affairs from Johns Hopkins University’s School of Advanced International Studies, and a Juris Doctorate from Georgetown University Law Center. An avid runner and gardener, Adams-Allen lives in Washington, D.C., with her husband, their puppy, and two awesome daughters.”
Vote date: Tuesday, October 5, 2021 Vote Tally: 79-20
Party Breakdown: Thirty Republicans joined all of the Democrats and Independents in voting YES. The twenty remaining Republicans – mostly in the presidential hopeful and insurrectionist parts of the party – voted NO.
Bob Casey voted YES.
Pat Toomey voted YES.
Senate Discharge Motion Vote on Catherine Elizabeth Lhamon to be Assistant Secretary for Civil Rights, Department of Education
A few months back in an explainer segment, MoCTrack discussed how rare it was to have a full Senate vote on a motion to discharge to get a stalled nomination out of committee. But this 50-50 Senate is not a normal place, and we once again saw a full vote on a motion to discharge a nomination to a bureaucratic position. This is the ninth Biden nominee who has needed a motion to discharge to get to the floor for a full confirmation vote in the Senate.
The industry periodical Inside Higher Ed provided coverage of Catherine Lhamon’s confirmation hearing, and has details on why the Republicans stalled her confirmation vote. Most of it pertained to Title I regulations, which guarantees equal educational opportunity in federally funded programs:
President Biden’s pick to lead the Office for Civil Rights at the Department of Education maintained her strong opinions of current Title IX regulations during her confirmation hearing Tuesday, even as Republican senators criticized her previous tenure at the department. Catherine Lhamon, who was nominated to serve as assistant secretary for civil rights in May, said she believes the regulations surrounding Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 enacted by the Trump administration permit “students to rape and sexually harass with impunity.”
…Republicans’ uncertainty about Lhamon’s nomination was evident from the outset of the hearing, when Burr, who is the ranking member of the Senate Health, Education, Labor and Pensions Committee, devoted much of his opening statement to his concerns about the last time Lhamon was assistant secretary for civil rights, during the Obama administration.
Now that Lhamon’snominain has moved to the full floor, she should be confirmed in the coming weeks.
Vote date: Thursday, October 7, 2021 Vote Tally: 50-49
Party Breakdown: This was a pure party line vote, with all Republicans present voting NO, and allDemocrats and Independents voting YES. Republican Richard Burr of North Carolina did not vote, obviating the need for Vice President Kamala Harris’s tie breaking vote.
Bob Casey voted YES.
Pat Toomey voted NO.
Unanimously passed legislation
The following bills were passed through unanimous consent or voice vote (which presumes unanimity, as any member can object to the voice vote and ask for a roll call). This list excludes bills related to post offices, stamps, memorials, awareness weeks and other ceremonial activities.
- H.R.4981 – To amend the Fentanyl Sanctions Act, to modify certain deadlines relating to the Commission on Combating Synthetic Opioid Trafficking
- S.544 – A bill to direct the Secretary of Veterans Affairs to designate one week each year as “Buddy Check Week” for the purpose of outreach and education concerning peer wellness checks for veterans
- S.796 – Protecting Moms Who Served Act
Quotes of Interest
Our Senators share their thoughts on the Debt Limit Drama
🔵 Senator Bob Casey, @SenBobCasey, 10/04/21:
“Senate Republicans aren’t just playing politics with the Nation’s economy and creditworthiness by refusing to raise the debt ceiling (…for debts incurred largely under the previous president): They’re blocking us from acting.
For weeks, Senate Republicans have told @SenateDems to go it alone and raise the ceiling ourselves. So we did that and sought to raise the debt ceiling with only Democratic votes.
They blocked that, too.
It’s bad-faith political theater. It’s shameful. It has to stop.”
🔴 Senator Pat Toomey, via his official website, 10/07/21:
“Tonight, the Democrats voted to saddle the American taxpayers with an additional $480 billion in debt—even though this will only stave off another debt ceiling increase until early next year. Democrats, with narrow control of both chambers of Congress and the White House, have decided to go on an unprecedented, dangerous spending and tax-hiking spree that will drag down our economy and require even more debt in the future.”
🔵 Senator Bob Casey, @SenBobCasey, 10/07/21:
“It was an honor to join caregiving advocates for their 24-hour vigil for home & community-based services. They’ve been out here since 7 pm yesterday sharing their home care stories. That’s commitment. That’s perseverance. That’s what we need to pass the #BetterCareBetterJobs Act.”
🔴 Senator Pat Toomey, @SenToomey, 10/08/21:
“Senators @MikeCrapo, @SenatorRisch, & I are extremely concerned the Biden admin may bypass the Senate treaty process on this destructive global tax policy.
A bilateral/multilateral tax treaty would require Senate advice, consent, & 2/3 vote of approval.” LINK
🔴 PA-01’s Rep. Brian Fitzpatrick, @RepBrianFitz, 10/08/21:
“The CCP remains our nation’s and the world’s #1 existential threat. I stand in strong support of the CIA’s newly announced China Mission Center.
We must all unite to hold the CCP accountable for their abuses and their aggression. We cannot fail in this mission.”
🔵 PA-02’s Rep. Brendan Boyle, @RepBrendanBoyle, 10/08/21:
“So, it looks like the perennial food fight that is the recurring debt limit expiration has been avoided. Sadly, we only kicked the can down the road to Dec., when we will be back where we started. This is not a solution. My new bill to eliminate the Debt LImit would fix this.”
🔵 PA-03’s Rep. Dwight Evans, @RepDwightEvans, 10/08/21:
This tweet from Congressman Evans was made while quote-tweeting content from WHYY News about Pennslvania joining a four-state ‘memorandum of understanding’ to share gun crime data
“I welcome this decision by @GovernorTomWolf & hope that more states will join this effort to save lives. And the U.S. Senate needs to join the House in passing bills to require universal background checks for gun buyers & close the Charleston loophole!”
🔵 PA-04’s Rep. Madeleine Dean, @RepDean, 10/05/21:
“The bipartisan infrastructure bill and the #BuildBackBetter plan are the promise of transformative change for our country.
A promise we will keep. Thank you @RepSusanWild and my other colleagues for reminding us all of our promise to voters.”
🔵 PA-05’s Rep. Mary Gay Scanlon, @RepMGS, 10/08/21:
“The Violence Against Women Act is lifesaving legislation. It protects survivors and provides critical resources.
The House passed #VAWA reauthorization months ago. Now, the Senate needs to act. #DomesticViolenceAwarenessMonth”
🔵 PA-06’s Rep. Chrissy Houlahan, @RepHoulahan, 10/04/21:
“While we are all here, now is a good time to remind everyone that human rights are women’s rights, and women’s rights are human rights.
🔵 PA-07’s Rep. Susan Wild, @RepSusanWild, 10/08/21:
“My #1 priority is the well-being of my constituents — they deserve jobs, child care, quality early childhood education, and more.
The #BuildBackBetter agenda and bipartisan infrastructure package check all of those boxes.
I’m ready to get this done.”
🔵 PA-08’s Rep. Matt Cartwright, @RepCartwright, 10/08/21:
“Americans’ wellbeing depends on affordable access to clean water.
I’ve introduced a bipartisan bill with @RepAGonzalez today to modernize our water infrastructure — it will help deliver clean water to homes efficiently and save consumers money.” LINK
🔴 PA-09’s Rep. Dan Meuser, @RepMeuser, 10/07/21:
“Producing American energy not only creates jobs and reduces energy prices for Americans, it keeps our allies from buying energy from adversaries.
Biden’s policies are driving up prices, killing jobs, and empowering Russia & OPEC.”
🔴 PA-10’s Rep. Scott Perry, @RepScottPerry, is no longer using Twitter with any regularity (last tweet was in September), but he did share this on Facebook on 10/09/21:
“They said they’d defeat #COVID19. They didn’t. They fired nurses.
They said they’d fix the economy. They made it worse. You pay more, save less.
They said they’d close the border. They didn’t. Record numbers coming across with no plan.
They said they’d protect our Troops, never strand Americans. They lied, Americans died, Americans remain abandoned in Afghanistan.
They said they’d “unify.” They further divided us.
🔴 PA-11’s Rep. Lloyd Smucker, @RepSmucker, 10/07/21:
“House Democrats earned a lot of Pinocchio’s discussing the impact of the Tax Cuts & Jobs Act. The facts are TCJA created low unemployment, lowest recorded poverty levels, & increased median household income by $5k. Listen to my comments at a recent @WaysandMeansGOP meeting.”
🔴 PA-12’s Rep. Fred Keller, @RepFredKeller, 10/08/21:
“Inflation is really a tax on all Americans…If [President Biden] cared about those American families, he’d put American energy first, he’d put American jobs first, and he’d start standing up for America around the world.”
🔴 PA-13’s Rep. John Joyce, @RepJohnJoyce, 10/08/21:
“Oil prices are now at their highest since the Obama Administration. It’s clear that Joe Biden’s failed energy policies, like canceling the Keystone XL pipeline, are hurting American families.”
🔴 PA-14’s Rep. Guy Reschenthaler, @GReschenthaler, 10/07/21:
“When you juxtapose how concerned parents are being treated by the left and the MSM vs how they treated Antifa who caused $2B in damage, you see where their priorities lie.
The left’s violence is equated to speech.
While conservative speech is equated to violence.”
🔴 PA-15’s Rep. Glenn W. Thompson, @CongressmanGT, 10/07/21:
“Parents should not harass or threaten school officials. However, this proposed task force is an attack on parents’ rights over their children’s education. Proud to join @EdLaborGOP requesting a briefing on the DOJ’s decision to strip parents of their First Amendment rights.”
🔴 PA-16’s Rep. Mike Kelly, @MikeKellyPA, 10/08/21:
This was Rep. Kelly’s only tweet this week.
“No Senior should have to wait for health care because of bureaucratic delays, which is why I’m proud to lead H.R. 3173. This bipartisan bill reached an important milestone today, and I’m grateful to all of my colleagues for their support.”
🔵 PA-17’s Rep. Conor Lamb, @RepConorLamb, 10/08/21:
“Today I introduced the Pay Down, Upskill Act to help reduce student debt loads while at the same time helping more people in #PA17 & across the nation access the education that leads to good jobs. Learn more about the legislation here.”
🔵 PA-18’s Rep. Mike Doyle, @USRepMikeDoyle, 10/06/21:
“The #BuildBackBetterAct includes important provisions from the Black Maternal Health #Momnibus Act, which I cosponsored, that would improve maternal health outcomes and reduce pregnancy-related mortality, especially among women of color.”
Rep. Scott Scott Perry’s BAD week
This week the Senate Judiciary Committee issued an “interim staff report” about the run-up to the January 6th Insurrection, and Pennsylvania’s own 🔴 PA-10’s Rep. Scott Perry played quite the starring role.
You can find the report, titled “Subverting JUSTICE: How the Former President and His Allies Pressured DOJ to Overturn the 2020 Election,” on the official website for the Senate Judiciary Committee. Below, you will find screenshots of some of the 53 times that Scott Perry is referenced in the 394 page report.
Here’s where former-President Trump specifically cited the Republican allies who were actively doing his bidding, citing Rep. Scott Perry by name (alongside Pennsylvania State Senator Doug Mastriano, who was present at the Capitol on January 6th and who was proved in photo evidence to have broken through police barriers in front of the complex.)
And here is where you can read about how Scott Perry called the Acting Deputy Attorney General at the Justice Department and provided him with already-refuted election fraud allegations.
If you would like to read more about 🔴 PA-10’s Rep. Scott Perry and his appearances in this daming Senate Judiciary report, please see any of these articles:
- “A report by Senate Democrats targeted Pa. Republicans Scott Perry, Doug Mastriano for aiding Trump’s attempts to overturn the 2020 election,” from the Philadelphia Inquirer
- “Congressional report sheds more light on U.S. Rep. Scott Perry’s role in Trump’s post-election battles,” from Penn Live
- “Senate committee: U.S. Rep. Scott Perry played role in Trump administration’s efforts to overturn 2020 election,” from Lancaster’s NBC affiliate, WGAL
- “Senate Judiciary probe of Trump’s 2020 machinations zeroes in on Pennsylvania House Republican,” from Politico
- “Senate report shows Perry, Mastriano personally leaned on Justice Department to further discredited election claims,” from the Carlisle Sentinel
- “Pennsylvania gave birth to our nation. Now it’s the land of insurrectionists,” from The Morning Call (opinion piece)
Fitzpatrick in the News
Research courtesy of volunteer CC
“Small businesses in every community across our country continue to suffer from rippling effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. As they navigate through these uncertain economic times, having to establish relationships with new lenders only adds to their burdens. Our bipartisan legislation would ensure that our community credit unions have the maximum flexibility necessary to provide their small business members with the credit access and financial support they will need in the aftermath of the pandemic.”
— from a Financial Regulation News article titled “Bill targets credit union lending limit increase”
“My politics are very moderate because we’re trying to grow the base of the Republican Party. The vast majority of people in this country want pragmatic responsibility. They don’t want this red meat-throwing saber-rattling and incendiary talk. They want leaders, [and we should] lower the temperature.”
— from a Jewish Insider piece titled “Young ‘mavericks’ envision new GOP”
“As our nation continues to grapple with the opioid epidemic, it is essential that we recognize the impact the epidemic has on children within families touched by problem drug use and addiction.”
— from a Washington State Wire article titled “Strickland introduces legislation to support foster youth affected by the opioid crisis”
“In the wake of September 11th, our nation came together as one to honor and recognize those we lost on that tragic day 20 years ago. The September 11th National Memorial Trail serves as a symbol of America’s resilience and ensures that we will forever remember the sacrifices made by the many heroes and innocent lives lost on 9/11. I applaud the Senate for passing our bipartisan legislation to designate the September 11th National Memorial Trail, and I look forward to the President signing this bill into law.”
— from a Levittown Now article titled “9/11 Memorial Trail With Bucks County Route Headed To President’s Desk”
“The ban on the importation of dogs into the United States from over 100 countries threatens the welfare of would-be adopted dogs who are subjected to horrific, inhumane conditions in foreign countries. If international pet rescue organizations are unable to resume their work, the future for the majority of these vulnerable and abandoned animals is grim. I am committed to working with my bipartisan colleagues and the CDC to find alternate solutions to safely and efficiently import rescue dogs into the United States so that they have a chance at a better life and an opportunity to find a forever home.”
— from a Florida Daily article titled ”Ted Deutch, Brian Fitzpatrick Call on CDC to End Suspension of Canine Imports”
This report is brought to you by the Pennsylvania MoCTrack team…
CC Linda Houk, Gary Garb, Kierstyn Piotrowski Zolfo.
Have you seen an interesting or revealing recent quote from a member of Pennsylvania’s Congressional delegation that was not featured in MoCTrack? We are looking for folks who can help us cover what gets into traditional media, especially in the western parts of the state! Please email KierstynPZ@gmail.com and put “MoC Quote” in the subject, and please be sure to include a link to the article, the article title, and the full quote (in case your editor gets paywalled). Thanks!
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